The Importance of Zinc for PCOS: Benefits and Dosage

Is Zinc good for PCOS?

Zinc is great for PCOS.

It targets many of the root causes such as insulin resistance, androgen excess and hormone imbalance.

Read on to find out how PCOS is linked to Zinc deficiency.

Understanding Zinc and its Role in PCOS

Zinc is an essential mineral in its own right.


 It is involved in many key processes within the body including immune function, wound healing and blood clotting.


 It even contributes to your ability to both taste and smell, so clearly Zinc is not a mineral we want to be short of.


Zinc is also absolutely essential for pregnant women. This is because it acts to regulate a number of key developmental processes including the growth of cells.


Luckily a true zinc deficiency is relatively rare. However many people may fail to get optimal levels due to poor intestinal absorption or other issues.


It’s also important to remember that we don’t just want to avoid a deficiency of a mineral such as Zinc.


We also want to make sure we get enough to support any particular condition we may have - such as PCOS.

The Importance of Zinc for Hormonal Balance

Zinc has a regulating role in both male and female hormone balance. 


Zinc helps to regulate testosterone levels in men - and deficiencies can be implicated in male infertility.


In women, low zinc levels can impact ovulation, menstrual cycles, and fertility.


As well as regulating sex hormones such as testosterone, Zinc is also involved in insulin resistance - with studies showing those with higher zinc levels can benefit from increased insulin sensitivity.

Zinc Deficiency and Its Association with PCOS

Many different factors can contribute to or worsen PCOS. One of these is insulin dysregulation, and specifically insulin resistance.


In studies conducted on rats, findings showed a correlation between higher Zinc levels, lowered insulin resistance and a reduction in ovarian cysts.


So, when Zinc targets insulin resistance, it can also reduce symptoms and signs of PCOS which are worsened by high circulating glucose levels resulting from insulin resistance.


Interestingly there is a clear link showing that women with PCOS tend to have lower levels of Zinc and Magnesium - two key minerals for hormonal and general health.


But unfortunately we don’t currently know whether this is a cause or effect of PCOS.


A zinc deficiency is also associated with PCOS in the following ways:


  • Can worsen or cause symptoms of PMS

  • Can worsen mood disorders affected by PCOS

  • Drives acne and hair loss caused by high testosterone levels

  • May increase hirsutism (excessive hair growth) caused by excess androgens

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PCOS? Which Type Do You Have?

What Are the Benefits of Zinc for PCOS?

Taking sufficient Zinc can impact multiple factors associated with PCOS, making it a key tool in your PCOS management plan. Below are some of the main benefits of taking Zinc for PCOS.

1. Regulates Androgen Levels & Hormonal Imbalances

PCOS is associated with excess androgens (sex hormones). 


In particular symptoms such as excess hair and acne are fueled by an over expression of these hormones.


So, as Zinc regulates androgen levels including testosterone this can help to reduce the impact of such effects.


Similarly, Zinc can help to influence other female hormones such as FSH and LH to help promote healthy ovulation and regular menstrual cycles.

2. Helps Treat Acne Associated with PCOS

Zinc is often included in topical skin preparations because it has anti acne properties. 


It supports immune function and wound healing both of which can reduce the severity of your acne levels.


Similarly Zinc can help to lower testosterone levels which are associated with acne in excess.


Studies have shown that Zinc can also lower prolactin levels which can be linked to acne in PCOS patients.


Zinc is often recommended for people even if they don’t have PCOS - but it may have particular merit for those with PCOS due to its multifactorial approach to its root causes. 

3. Reduction of Unwanted Facial Hair (Hirsutism)

This can be a really challenging symptom of PCOS.


Luckily Zinc works directly to target the root cause of this upsetting symptom. It does this by regulating the androgen levels associated with an overgrowth of hair.


Just a few weeks of Zinc supplementation may help you to manage your androgen levels and reduce your symptoms.

4. Improves Insulin Sensitivity

As previously mentioned, insulin resistance is negatively involved in PCOS pathogenesis and potentially its progression too.


There is a clear link between women with PCOS and insulin dysregulation- making it a key target for holistic treatment.


As well as following other lifestyle measures that promote insulin management including healthy diet and exercise regimes - Zinc shows promise in this area.


It works within the pancreas to alter Insulin production and increasesensitivity- which is good for general health but also supports PCOS directly.

5. Enhances Ovulation and Fertility

Whilst not a concern for everyone with PCOS - it’s no doubt thatfertilityissues and irregular ovulation do affect a large proportion of women with the common condition.


But many PCOS related fertility issues can be greatly improved when steps are taken to address the root causes of PCOS such as insulin resistance and testosterone excess.


Zinc has been shown to improve fertility outcomes in both men and women. One of the ways Zinc may help with femaleinfertility is by promoting regularovulation and consistent menstrual cycles.

6. Provides Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Many reproductive conditions such as PCOS and endometriosis are worsened by inflammation. So trying to follow an anti-inflammatory lifestyle is key.


Sometimes you need a little extra help though, and Zinc is able to reduce excess inflammation in the body as required.

So make sure you avoid deficiency and top up your Zinc supplies today.

7. Provides Antioxidant Activity

Many chronic diseases can be caused or worsened by oxidative stress. 


This is when you have an excess of free radicals and insufficient antioxidants.


Helpfully, Zinc can protect you against excess free radicals by providing antioxidant activity


We normally tend to think of fruit and veg as being high in antioxidants but Zinc also has a special ability to act in this way.

8. Boosts Immune Function

When you’re dealing with PCOS the last thing you want is added coughs and colds. 


Maintaining a healthy immune system requires a range of nutrients.


 Zinc is one of the key minerals required for immune health - which is why you’ll often see Zinc added to Vitamin C for better effects.


Having plenty of Zinc rich foods, and/ or taking a supplementation can help to keep your immune system strong year round.

9. Leads to Healthier Hair and Skin

Everybody wants healthier hair and skin - PCOS or not. 


The good news is that Zinc appears to encourage healthy follicle growth and development resulting in stronger hair.


Zinc also supports nail growth and regeneration, helps to reduce acne and help with wound healing - all good reasons to make sure you are getting enough of this key mineral.

10. Positive Effects on Mood and Cognitive Function

Struggling with PCOS is no fun. 


It can take a real toll on your wellbeing and mental state. 


So it's great that Zinc can support your mood and reduce the anxiety inducing effects of PMS.


And not only does Zinc help to regulate your moods - it also helps to ward off cognitive decline. 


It appears to do this by triggering the release of brain derived neurotrophic factor, which is linked to enhanced cognition and mood.

Zinc Food Sources and Supplementation

When it comes to maintaining adequate Zinc stores, the ideal approach combines Zinc rich food stores with a carefully selected supplement regime.


You can find Zinc in a range of foods - both animal and plant based. Good sources of Zinc include lamb, seafood and pumpkin seeds.


Beef and oysters are also a good choice for PCOS.


There are however some major challenges with obtaining sufficient Zinc from diet alone. This is particularly true for vegetarians as it’s harder to get enough bioavailable Zinc from a diet lacking in meat.


Also, if you consume a diet rich in phytates (present in a number of grains and legumes) this can deplete your Zinc stores too.


Some people struggle to absorb dietary Zinc due to intestinal issues too - so a supplement can offer a helping hand for many.

Zinc Supplementation Guidelines for PCOS

It’s clear to see that Zinc is an essential asset if you have PCOS, but just how much should you take to gain the benefits? 


Below we set out how to get the most out of your Zinc supplements.

1. Recommended Daily Zinc Intake for Women with PCOS

Studies looking at the benefits of Zinc for women with PCOS tend to focus on quite high intakes.


This can involve doses as high as 40-50mg. 


When you compare this to the daily recommended amount of 8mg a day for non pregnant women you can see this is quite a lot.


Because this amount is more likely to result in side effects, unless your doctor has proven you have a real deficiency it's a good idea to stick to lower amounts and to never exceed the recommended limits on your chosen supplements.


Even taking 8mg per day will help you to prevent a Zinc deficiency which is linked to many of the issues listed above such as insulin resistance and impaired immune function.

2. Types of Zinc Supplements and Their Bioavailability

Both Zinc gluconate and citrate appear to be better absorbed than Zinc oxide. 


Zinc citrate is a highly bioavailable form of Zinc and is therefore used in many different supplements.


You might often see ‘Chelated Zinc’ on the ingredients list of your supplement. 


This means that a form of Zinc has been combined with what’s known as a chelating agent.


This is done to try and increase the bioavailability of Zinc, to increase the benefits you get.

3. How to Choose the Right Zinc Supplement

Try to aim for a Zinc supplement that will provide you with a good portion of your daily needs. 


This means it should offer you at least half of your daily recommended amount (8mg).


Of course you can also top up your Zinc intake though making the relevant dietary choices.


It’s not always possible to consume enough Zinc rich foods on a daily basis so it’s a good insurance policy to take a daily supplement too.


Always try to choose a reputable brand, and look for a product which doesn’t add in unnecessary ingredients such as fillers and similar.

4. Importance of a Holistic Approach in Managing PCOS

As much as Zinc can make a powerful impact on PCOS in its own right, when it comes to getting the best results there isn’t one magic cure all.


This means it's extremely important you aim to get the best possible range of benefits as part of a holistic health plan.


So, try to combine the best evidence based ingredients such as Green tea, Saw palmetto and Reishi mushrooms.


Here are Nourished Natural Health we can offer you just that - a carefully curated blend which targets multiple root causes of PCOS such as insulin resistance and hormone imbalances.


Of course it’s also crucial to address relevant lifestyle factors such as stress, exercise and sleep for maximum impact.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the recommended daily dosage of zinc for women with PCOS?

Most women require about 8 mg of zinc per day. 


But this is the amount designed to maintain zinc stores, and doesn’t take into account pre existing conditions such as PCOS. 


If you have a zinc deficiency you may need to take higher amounts (within the safe upper limit of 40mg). 


Many studies looking at PCOS tend to use 40mg per day, but this is more likely to cause side effects than 15-25mg per day. 


So always follow the guidelines on your supplement and don’t exceed the recommended amounts. 

Are there any risks or side effects associated with zinc supplementation?

The best way to avoid side effects is to start with a low dose of zinc and avoid exceeding the safe limits. 


Side effects of zinc intake can include nausea, stomach upset and headaches. 


If you take too much zinc over the long term you can also deplete your zinc stores which may create symptoms such as weakness in the arms or legs.

How long does it take to see the benefits of zinc supplementation for PCOS?

Studies have shown that it can take around 8 weeks of zinc supplementation for noticeable reductions in PCOS symptoms to occur. 


So, consistency is key when it comes to zinc.

Are there specific forms of zinc supplements that are more effective for PCOS?

Any good quality Zinc supplement will help to top up your levels and target some of the main causes of PCOS so don’t worry too much about the form. 


To date there is no specific research suggesting that one form of Zinc works better for PCOS than another.

Can zinc supplementation interfere with other PCOS medications or supplements?

You can take Zinc alongside most medications and supplements. 


But try to avoid taking Zinc at the same time as either Calcium or Iron as this can cause absorption issues. 


Zinc works best when taken as part of a well balanced diet/ supplement regime. 


If you take any specific medications then it’s worth checking with your doctor before supplementing with Zinc. 

Are there any signs that indicate a zinc deficiency in women with PCOS?

If you have low Zinc you might also experience poor wound healing, loss of appetite. 


Zinc deficiency can also result in hair loss and a greater infection risk too.

How long should I continue taking zinc supplements for PCOS management?

You’ll need to take zinc for at least 8 weeks to see any benefits for PCOS. 


You can keep taking zinc at safe doses as part of your PCOS management plan for as long as you like, providing you don’t exceed the upper limit and remember to balance your copper intake too.

Should I take zinc continuously or in cycles?

Zinc taken at lower doses as part of a well balanced supplement can be taken on an ongoing basis. 


If you take higher doses over a longer period of time then it could be a good idea to check for Copper deficiencies

How can I ensure the quality of the zinc supplement I'm using?

There is some evidence to suggest that forms of zinc such as picolinate and citrate are better absorbed than Zinc oxide. 


Additionally aim to choose a high quality supplement brand which clearly lists all ingredients and is free of unnecessary fillers and additives.

Can I take zinc alongside other herbal remedies for PCOS?

Yes absolutely. Zinc is very effective at reducing PCOS symptoms but it also is not a cure all. 


For the best effects you should consider combining Zinc with other beneficial ingredients such as green tea and nettle root, as these work together to lower excess androgen. 


One easy way to do this is to take our best selling Androgen blocker which offers all of these key ingredients plus saw palmetto, reishi mushroom and more…

About The Author - Tamika Woods

Tamika Woods | PCOS Author | Nourished Natural Health
Tamika Woods, Clinical Nutritionist (B.HS; B.Ed), Bestselling Author

For a decade, Tamika battled chronic acne, irregular cycles, mood swings, hair loss, painful periods, severe digestive issues and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). You name it - she's been there!

Tam was finally able to clear her skin, regulate her cycle, be free of period pain and fall pregnant naturally with her daughter in 2020. It took Tam 10 years and tens of thousands of dollars in tertiary education to get the answers she needed to get better.

She didn’t want other women to suffer as long as she did which is why she has dedicated her life to helping women in the same position as she was.

Tam helps women interpret what their bodies are trying to communicate through frustrating symptoms, and then develop a step-by-step roadmap to find balance again. She's here to help you get on track!

Tamika Woods is the author of the Amazon best seller PCOS Repair Protocol. She holds a Bachelor of Health Science degree (Nutritional Medicine) as well as a Bachelor of Education, graduating with Honours in both.

She is a certified Fertility Awareness Method (FAM) Educator and a certified member of the Australian Natural Therapists Association (ANTA).

Related Products

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$29.00
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References used for this article

1. Nasiadek M, Stragierowicz J, Klimczak M, Kilanowicz A. The Role of Zinc in Selected Female Reproductive System Disorders. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 16;12(8):2464. doi: 10.3390/nu12082464. PMID: 32824334; PMCID: PMC7468694. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468694/

2. Biao H, Zheng-yang L, YuanC et al.A cross-sectional study on the effect of dietary zinc intake on the relationship between serum vitamin D3 and HOMA-IR .Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;9. DOI.10.3389/fnut.2022.945811 .

3. Fazel Torshizi F, Chamani M, Khodaei HR, Sadeghi AA, Hejazi SH, Majidzadeh Heravi R. Therapeutic effects of organic zinc on reproductive hormones, insulin resistance and mTOR expression, as a novel component, in a rat model of Polycystic ovary syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jan;23(1):36-45. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.36004.8586. PMID: 32405346; PMCID: PMC7206839.

4. Zinc fact sheet

5. Jamilian M, Foroozanfar F, Bahmani F, Talaee R, Monavari M, Asemi Z. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Apr;170(2):271-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0480-7. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26315303.

6. Quan Z, Li H, Quan Z, Qing H. Appropriate Macronutrients or Mineral Elements Are Beneficial to Improve Depression and Reduce the Risk of Depression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023; 24(8):7098. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087098


7. Park H, Kim CW, Kim SS, Park CW. The therapeutic effect and the changed serum zinc level after zinc supplementation in alopecia areata patients who had a low serum zinc level. Ann Dermatol. 2009 May;21(2):142-6. doi: 10.5021/ad.2009.21.2.142. Epub 2009 May 31. PMID: 20523772; PMCID: PMC2861201.

8) Betsy A, Binitha M, Sarita S. Zinc deficiency associated with hypothyroidism: an overlooked cause of severe alopecia. Int J Trichology. 2013 Jan;5(1):40-2. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.114714. PMID: 23960398; PMCID: PMC3746228.

9. Fallah A, Mohammad-Hasani A, Colagar AH. Zinc is an Essential Element for Male Fertility: A Review of Zn Roles in Men's Health, Germination, Sperm Quality, and Fertilization. J Reprod Infertil. 2018 Apr-Jun;19(2):69-81. PMID: 30009140; PMCID: PMC6010824.

10. Donnez J, Cacciottolo L. Endometriosis: An Inflammatory Disease That Requires New Therapeutic Options. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 28;23(3):1518. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031518. PMID: 35163463; PMCID: PMC8836207.

11.  González F. Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: underpinning of insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction. Steroids. 2012 Mar 10;77(4):300-5. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2011.12.003. Epub 2011 Dec 8. PMID: 22178787; PMCID: PMC3309040.

12.  Jarosz M, Olbert M, Wyszogrodzka G, Młyniec K, Librowski T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Zinc-dependent NF-κB signaling. Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Feb;25(1):11-24. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0309-4. Epub 2017 Jan 12. PMID: 28083748; PMCID: PMC5306179.

13.  Cunha A, Póvoa AM. Infertility management in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a review. Porto Biomed J. 2021 Jan 26;6(1):e116. doi: 10.1097/j.pbj.0000000000000116. PMID: 33532657; PMCID: PMC7846416.

14) Amisi CA. Markers of insulin resistance in Polycystic ovary syndrome women: An update. World J Diabetes. 2022 Mar 15;13(3):129-149. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v13.i3.129. PMID: 35432749; PMCID: PMC8984569.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8984569/

15) Ye W, Xie T, Song Y, Zhou L. The role of androgen and its related signals in PCOS. J Cell Mol Med. 2021 Feb;25(4):1825-1837. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.16205. Epub 2020 Dec 23. PMID: 33369146; PMCID: PMC7882969.

16. Fazel Torshizi F, Chamani M, Khodaei HR, Sadeghi AA, Hejazi SH, Majidzadeh Heravi R. Therapeutic effects of organic zinc on reproductive hormones, insulin resistance and mTOR expression, as a novel component, in a rat model of Polycystic ovary syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jan;23(1):36-45. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.36004.8586. PMID: 32405346; PMCID: PMC7206839.

17)Brandão Néto J, de Mendonça BB, Shuhama T, Marchini JS, Madureira G, Pimenta WP, Tornero MT. Zinc: an inhibitor of prolactin (PRL) secretion in humans. Horm Metab Res. 1989 Apr;21(4):203-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1009191. PMID: 2753470.

18)Mehta-Ambalal S. Clinical, Biochemical, and Hormonal Associations in Female Patients with Acne: A Study and Literature Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017 Oct;10(10):18-24. Epub 2017 Oct 1. PMID: 29344316; PMCID: PMC5749694.

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About The Author - Tamika Woods

Tamika Woods | PCOS Author | Nourished Natural Health
Tamika Woods, Clinical Nutritionist (B.HS; B.Ed), Bestselling Author

For a decade, Tamika battled chronic acne, irregular cycles, mood swings, hair loss, painful periods, severe digestive issues and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). You name it - she's been there!

Tam was finally able to clear her skin, regulate her cycle, be free of period pain and fall pregnant naturally with her daughter in 2020. It took Tam 10 years and tens of thousands of dollars in tertiary education to get the answers she needed to get better.

She didn’t want other women to suffer as long as she did which is why she has dedicated her life to helping women in the same position as she was.

Tam helps women interpret what their bodies are trying to communicate through frustrating symptoms, and then develop a step-by-step roadmap to find balance again. She's here to help you get on track!

Tamika Woods is the author of the Amazon best seller PCOS Repair Protocol. She holds a Bachelor of Health Science degree (Nutritional Medicine) as well as a Bachelor of Education, graduating with Honours in both.

She is a certified Fertility Awareness Method (FAM) Educator and a certified member of the Australian Natural Therapists Association (ANTA).

Related Products

Sale Off
Nourished Period + PMS Repair
$29.00
Sale Off
Nourished Hormone Detox + Digestion - Nourished Natural Health
$29.00

Hormone Healing Recipes

References used for this article

1. Nasiadek M, Stragierowicz J, Klimczak M, Kilanowicz A. The Role of Zinc in Selected Female Reproductive System Disorders. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 16;12(8):2464. doi: 10.3390/nu12082464. PMID: 32824334; PMCID: PMC7468694. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468694/

2. Biao H, Zheng-yang L, YuanC et al.A cross-sectional study on the effect of dietary zinc intake on the relationship between serum vitamin D3 and HOMA-IR .Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;9. DOI.10.3389/fnut.2022.945811 .

3. Fazel Torshizi F, Chamani M, Khodaei HR, Sadeghi AA, Hejazi SH, Majidzadeh Heravi R. Therapeutic effects of organic zinc on reproductive hormones, insulin resistance and mTOR expression, as a novel component, in a rat model of Polycystic ovary syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jan;23(1):36-45. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.36004.8586. PMID: 32405346; PMCID: PMC7206839.

4. Zinc fact sheet

5. Jamilian M, Foroozanfar F, Bahmani F, Talaee R, Monavari M, Asemi Z. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Apr;170(2):271-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0480-7. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26315303.

6.  Quan Z, Li H, Quan Z, Qing H. Appropriate Macronutrients or Mineral Elements Are Beneficial to Improve Depression and Reduce the Risk of Depression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023; 24(8):7098. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087098

7. Park H, Kim CW, Kim SS, Park CW. The therapeutic effect and the changed serum zinc level after zinc supplementation in alopecia areata patients who had a low serum zinc level. Ann Dermatol. 2009 May;21(2):142-6. doi: 10.5021/ad.2009.21.2.142. Epub 2009 May 31. PMID: 20523772; PMCID: PMC2861201.

8. Betsy A, Binitha M, Sarita S. Zinc deficiency associated with hypothyroidism: an overlooked cause of severe alopecia. Int J Trichology. 2013 Jan;5(1):40-2. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.114714. PMID: 23960398; PMCID: PMC3746228.

9. Fallah A, Mohammad-Hasani A, Colagar AH. Zinc is an Essential Element for Male Fertility: A Review of Zn Roles in Men's Health, Germination, Sperm Quality, and Fertilization. J Reprod Infertil. 2018 Apr-Jun;19(2):69-81. PMID: 30009140; PMCID: PMC6010824.

10. Donnez J, Cacciottolo L. Endometriosis: An Inflammatory Disease That Requires New Therapeutic Options. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 28;23(3):1518. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031518. PMID: 35163463; PMCID: PMC8836207.

11.  González F. Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: underpinning of insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction. Steroids. 2012 Mar 10;77(4):300-5. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2011.12.003. Epub 2011 Dec 8. PMID: 22178787; PMCID: PMC3309040.

12.  Jarosz M, Olbert M, Wyszogrodzka G, Młyniec K, Librowski T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Zinc-dependent NF-κB signaling. Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Feb;25(1):11-24. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0309-4. Epub 2017 Jan 12. PMID: 28083748; PMCID: PMC5306179.

13.  Cunha A, Póvoa AM. Infertility management in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a review. Porto Biomed J. 2021 Jan 26;6(1):e116. doi: 10.1097/j.pbj.0000000000000116. PMID: 33532657; PMCID: PMC7846416.

14. Amisi CA. Markers of insulin resistance in Polycystic ovary syndrome women: An update. World J Diabetes. 2022 Mar 15;13(3):129-149. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v13.i3.129. PMID: 35432749; PMCID: PMC8984569.

15. Ye W, Xie T, Song Y, Zhou L. The role of androgen and its related signals in PCOS. J Cell Mol Med. 2021 Feb;25(4):1825-1837. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.16205. Epub 2020 Dec 23. PMID: 33369146; PMCID: PMC7882969.

16. Fazel Torshizi F, Chamani M, Khodaei HR, Sadeghi AA, Hejazi SH, Majidzadeh Heravi R. Therapeutic effects of organic zinc on reproductive hormones, insulin resistance and mTOR expression, as a novel component, in a rat model of Polycystic ovary syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jan;23(1):36-45. doi: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.36004.8586. PMID: 32405346; PMCID: PMC7206839.

17. Brandão Néto J, de Mendonça BB, Shuhama T, Marchini JS, Madureira G, Pimenta WP, Tornero MT. Zinc: an inhibitor of prolactin (PRL) secretion in humans. Horm Metab Res. 1989 Apr;21(4):203-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1009191. PMID: 2753470.

18. Mehta-Ambalal S. Clinical, Biochemical, and Hormonal Associations in Female Patients with Acne: A Study and Literature Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017 Oct;10(10):18-24. Epub 2017 Oct 1. PMID: 29344316; PMCID: PMC5749694.